Alloy materials

How alloy materials impact on copper wires for electrical conductors

Problem:

Even at room temperature, pure copper has a tendency of recrystallizing when hard.

Effect:

→ Transformation from hard back into soft condition
→ Loss of mechanical strength

Solution:

The addition of minor amounts of alloy components leads to

  • hard-drawn materials recrystallizing at a much higher temperature than pure copper
  • preserving a better tensile strength even at higher ambient temperatures

but also to a

  • change in the resistance and, consequentially, the conductivity of the material

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Ag - Silver

Comparison of copper-based alloys with different amounts of silver added:

Tensile Strength (N/mm²)

Conductivity (% IACS)

Resistivity (Ohm mm²/m)

Temp. Coefficient of Resistance (1/°C)

CuAg alloys - description and link to the relevant specifications:

Proportion of silver

Mechanical properties

Flexlife

Proportion of silver

Conductivity

Proportion of silver

Resistivity

Proportion of silver

Temperature coefficient of resistance

Benefits of adding silver to copper-based alloys:

Temperature performance

Small crossections possible
→ reduced weight

  • High-frequency micro cables
  • Medical technology
  • Miniaturisation
  • Automotive intustry
  • Data cables / Signal cables
  • Miniaturisation

Mg - Magnesium

Comparison of copper-based alloys with different amounts of magnesium added:

Tensile Strength (N/mm²)

Conductivity (% IACS)

Resistivity (Ohm mm²/m)

Temp. Coefficient of Resistance (1/°C)

CuMg alloys - description and link to the relevant specifications:

Proportion of magnesium

Mechanical properties

Flexlife

Proportion of magnesium

Conductivity

Proportion of magnesium

Resistivity

Proportion of magnesium

Temperature coefficient of resistance

Benefits of adding magnesium to copper-based alloys:

Temperature performance

Small crossections possible
→ reduced weight

  • Automotive industry
  • Railway industry
  • Heating elements
  • Enamelled wires
  • Automotive industry
  • Data cables / Signal cables
  • Automation technology / Industrial applications
  • Loudspeakers
  • Miniaturisation
  • Aviation
  • Shielding braids
  • Industry
  • Miniaturisation
  • Micro data cables

Ni - Nickel

Comparison of copper-based alloys with different amounts of nickel added:

Tensile Strength (N/mm²)

Conductivity (% IACS)

Resistivity (Ohm mm²/m)

Temp. Coefficient of Resistance (1/°C)

CuNi alloys - description and link to the relevant specifications:

Proportion of nickel

Mechanical properties

Flexlife

Proportion of nickel

Conductivity

Proportion of nickel

Resistivity

Proportion of nickel

Temperature coefficient of resistance

Benefits of adding nickel to copper-based alloys:

Temperature performance

Controllability of heating capacity

  • Heating cables
  • Heating cables
  • Heating cables
  • Heating cables
  • Heating cables
  • Thermocouples
  • Heating cables

Sn - Tin

Comparison of copper-based alloys with different amounts of tin added:

Tensile Strength (N/mm²)

Conductivity (% IACS)

Resistivity (Ohm mm²/m)

Temp. Coefficient of Resistance (1/°C)

CuSn alloys - description and link to the relevant specifications:

Proportion of tin

Mechanical properties

Flexlife

Proportion of tin

Conductivity

Proportion of tin

Resistivity

Proportion of tin

Temperature coefficient of resistance

Benefits of adding tin to copper-based alloys:

Temperature performance

Small crossections possible
→ reduced weight

  • Automotive industry
  • Data cables / Signal cables
  • Shielding braids
  • Automation technology / Industrial applications
  • Loudspeakers
  • Automotive industry
  • Data cables / Signal cables
  • Automation technology / Industrial applications
  • Loudspeakers
  • Miniaturisation
  • Signal cables
  • Heating mats and electric blankets
  • Car seat heating
  • Steering wheel heating
  • AdBlue®

Zn - Zinc

Comparison of copper-based alloys with different amounts of zinc added:

Tensile Strength (N/mm²)

Conductivity (% IACS)

Resistivity (Ohm mm²/m)

Temp. Coefficient of Resistance (1/°C)

CuZn alloys - description and link to the relevant specifications:

Proportion of zinc

Mechanical properties

Flexlife

Proportion of zinc

Conductivity

Proportion of zinc

Resistivity

Proportion of zinc

Temperature coefficient of resistance

Benefits of adding zinc to copper-based alloys:

Small crossections possible
→ reduced weight

  • Signal cables
  • Brass wires can be found in a most diverse range of applications
    1. spark erosion wire (conductive materials are vaporized by applying sparks allowing for the conductor to be cut in this state)
    2. brushes made from brass wire (high mechanical strength and malleability, particularly suited for processing soft metals such as gold, brass or copper)
    3. decoration (e.g. the color of LEONI Histral® H26 looks very much like gold)
    4. grids and sieves made from brass wire

All Data depend on coating conditions, degree of cold working and thermal treatments during manufacturing process.

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